Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation among Passersby..

CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. When you notice that an individual is not breathing, CPR steps (chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth rescue breaths) could come in handy in restoring blood circulation and oxygen in the victim’s body.

If an AED is available, it could be used to restart a heart with an abnormal rhythm.

You must check the airway to confirm breathing before administering CPR to adults. If he/she is breathing, call for help before proceeding with resuscitation.

CPR training saves lives often, especially in places where medics would take a bit longer to come to a victim’s rescue.

While training classes are an excellent way people learn cardiac arrests and carry out CPR, an unskilled person can also be valuable in the survival of the victim.

When a rescuer forgets the chest compression ratio to rescue breaths, one can only carry out compressions, also referred to as hands-only Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

This technique can help circulation blood and oxygen in the victim’s body until someone uses an AED to restart the heart or until the arrival of the medical response team.

If a person collapses out of the blues and fails to be responsive, and their heart is not beating at a healthy pace, he/she can be declared clinically dead before executing any rescue operations.

At this time, you might as well commence on CPR since it can increase, three times, the chances of the victim surviving and having normal brain function.

Generally, CPR buys the victim time between the collapse and the arrival of medical personnel.

A victim suffering a heart attack or a cardiac arrest should receive immediate help since the countdown to brain damage usually starts when the attack happens. The following is the timeline of the stages of a victim of cardiac arrest.

  • 0-4 minutes – here, the likelihood of brain damage happening is minimal; therefore, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation could help restore the victim to full health.
  • 4-6 minutes – There is a probability that brain damage can occur at this stage.
  • 6-10 minutes- high likelihood of brain damage occurring
  • Over 10 minutes – brain death is imminent.

Bystander CPR Instructions: When Should You Administer CPR?

What happens if you are walking down the road and spot someone bending or lying on the grass. How do you determine if the person needs CPR or not?

Well, here’s one of the Bystander CPR Instructions to remember; knowing how to execute it is one thing; doing it is another. 

Often, people fear using their CPR skills on individuals who may not need it.

 Many circumstances, the person who comes to the rescue of the victim often has no clue whether the victim is suffering from cardiac arrest as per the signs and symptoms that they have acquired in training.

Heart Attacks and Cardiac Arrests.

These are two terms people confuse and use interchangeably. However, they are not the same and have different causes.

Cardiac arrests occur when the heart has irregular electrical impulses, thus causing irregular beat. Meanwhile, a heart attack is caused by the blood failing to flow in the heart due to blockage.

In the case of a cardiac arrest patient, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be executed, and an AED (Automated External Defibrillator) may prove useful.

Image Alt Tag: Doctor doing Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on patient.

And though a heart attack can trigger a cardiac arrest, most cases of heart attacks do not result in cardiac arrest.

If a person is suffering from a heart attack, a CPR shouldn’t be administered unless the patient is going into cardiac arrest.

It is better to perform CPR on a victim who does not need it than to fail to perform CPR on a person who might need it. Therefore it is recommended that if you are in doubt, conduct Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Criminals May Fake Emergencies to Lure Bystanders.

Beware of criminals who want to exploit your human instinct to steal and cause chaos. They use different methods to lure innocent bystanders to their traps more so ladies.

Report any incidence you deem suspicious to the authorities. Also, alert medical personnel if it seems like a medical emergency.

CPR and Electrocution.

If you suspect that an individual needs CPR, take a glance at your surroundings, the victim has likely been electrocuted, and contact with them may injure you.

In the case of electrocution, be careful taking care of the situation or risk endangering your life. Call for professional help if you notice any of these symptoms.

  • Cardiac arrest
  • Seizures
  • Numbness
  • Respiratory failure
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
  • unconsciousness

While waiting for the medical personnel, perform the following steps:

Observe your surroundings first, and do not touch the victim. He/she may contact the electrical source, which might pose a danger for you.

Attempt to turn off the source of current or move the source away from the scene using a non-conductor such as plastic, wood, or cardboard.

Check for indicators that your victim’s blood is circulating by checking for breathing, movement, or coughing. If these indicators are absent, start CPR immediately.

Lay the victim on the ground with the position of his head slightly lower than the lower body and legs on an elevated position.

Assessing Whether a Patient Requires Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

  1. Responsive checks.

The most critical step in assessing whether an individual needs CPR is to perform a responsive check by looking for responsiveness and breathing in the victim.

This check is easy to perform; tap the victim on the shoulders firmly while speaking loudly. If the patient is conscious, they will attempt to act; such as moving, blinking, or changing their facial expressions.

 An alternative is to tap their feet or tickle their feet’s soles if you do not wish to come close to the victim. If this fails to create an indication that the victim is responsive, call 911!

  • Check for Normal Breathing.

After notifying 911, confirm if the victim is breathing normally. Normal breathing, as per the American Heart Association, is defined by a regular outward and inward movement of the chest cavity.

This test should be conducted for at least five seconds and not exceeding ten seconds. If there is no evidence for normal breathing, commence on CPR immediately.

  • Lack of pulse.

Check for the victim’s pulse. No pulse is a sign of heart failure.

  • Fluids.

Fluids such as saliva, blood, or vomit may also be observed flowing out of the victim’s mouth.

The victim may also suffer from bladder control or loss of bladder, which could offset bystanders leading to delayed CPR.

  • Agonal breathing.

 These are more or less irregular breathing patterns, and reflex of the brain stem usually indicated by labored breathing, gasping for air followed by strange sounds and myoclonus.

Myoclonus is the twitching of muscle or muscles involuntarily for a short time.

Bystanders commonly mistake myoclonus for seizures, especially if the victim is experiencing chronic convulsions and therefore delay performing CPR.

  • Skin color change.

 If the skin becomes pale, bluish, or ashen, it may indicate that the victim needs CPR.

Sometimes the change of color might be subtle while other times, it may be easy to spot. While problems in respiration are the first sign of cardiac arrest, one can use the change of skin color as a secondary confirmation.

The changes occur in central parts such as the lips, tongue, or the core or peripheral regions such as fingers.

Overdosing drugs, Drowning, and Exposure to smoke/inhalants.

Check for a pulse and whether he/she is breathing. This type of injury might require repeated execution of chest compression (with hands) and rescue (mouth to mouth) breathing.

How to Resuscitate Correctly.

The procedure for carrying out a CPR is simple but has a tremendous impact when you get to save a life. Anyone can administer basic lifesaving CPR since no expertise is needed. 

Here are a few steps to guide you in executing CPR:

Position your hand on top of the victim’s chest: make sure you put the victim on a firm surface in a supine position. Kneel on the side and position the heel of your hand on the center position of his/her chest.

Interlock your fingers: your arms should stay straight, use your other hand to cover the first hand by the heel, and then interlock the fingers on both your hands. The fingers should be kept raised without touching the victim’s chest and ribcage.

Apply chest compressions: lean forward to place your shoulders vertically above the victim’s chest and compress his/her chest 2 inches deep. Relieve pressure from the breast without removing your hands to let the chest rise back up.

The chest compressions should be administered at a rate of 100 compressions/60 seconds for 30 full compressions.

Image Alt Tag: Doctor training on how to correctly perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Open the victim’s airway: Tilt the victim’s head and lift their chin to assist in opening the airway allowing their mouth to open slightly.

Watch for the rise and fall of the chest: when you are performing rescue breaths, you must take impulsive glances on the victim to see if they are showing any sign of respiration. 

The rise and fall of the chest is a standard indicator of breathing in an individual.

Repeat the chest compressions while issuing rescue breaths: Repeat the procedure by placing your hands back on the chest and do a complete cycle of 30 full compressions.

When Should You Stop CPR?

Deciding when to stop CPR is crucial because too much of it is dangerous. It is a factor any rescuer should consider while performing the procedure.

As previously said, it is better to perform CPR on an individual who does not need it rather than not administering it to someone who needs it.

If you are performing CPR and you see evidence of life, stop the procedure immediately.

Also, when the medical personnel gets to the scene, leave the victim to the professionals. If the environment is unsafe, you should also seek safety first.

Therefore, it is vital that in any indication of lack of breathing and unresponsiveness, carry out CPR right away, followed by rescue mouth operations.

Nothing is as fulfilling as saving a life. Attend training and get certified on this impressive skill of saving lives

It is equally helpful to know when to cease performing CPR as it is in knowing when to do them.

Here are a few indications to use to determine whether to stop CPR on a victim.

Fatigue – There is a limit to the amount of CPR one can perform in a given time. Chest compressions are extremely physical activity and might cause fatigue for the rescuer after a specific time.

If you feel that you are fatigued from the CPR process, and you think you are incapable of carrying forth, you can stop giving CPR without being held liable for his/her situation.

However, abandoning the victim without prior help may be an act of negligence, and you might be held accountable.

Patients with chronic illnesses – If after you commence giving CPR, new knowledge comes to the view that the victim might be suffering from a chronic disease such as cancer, and then you should opt to stop the compressions. 

Avoid these Mistakes when Performing CPR.

Remember to call for professional help: before commencing CPR, remember to call for medical support since most people give up executing CPR after a few minutes.

Don’t ignore CPR and start attending minor injuries: Each minute without chest compressions to restore blood flow in the body decreases the chances of survival for the victim.

Don’t prioritize rescue breath over chest compression: if you are untrained in executing mouth to mouth, you must avoid it and carry on with chest compression only.

Compressions should be not too slow and not too fast: the standard protocol is 100 chest compressions in a minute. Make sure that you follow it to the letter.

Avoid bending your elbows: keep your elbows straight with fingers locked together so that you can apply enough pressure when carrying out chest compressions.

Exert enough pressure on chest compressions: Don’t worry about hurting the victim. A crack in the chest is not a sign that you are bothering them or putting them in more danger than they are in.

For adults, the compressions should be 2 inches in and 1 inch for small children.

Don’t forget to tilt the head: If the airway is blocked when you are giving rescue breaths, there won’t be enough air reaching the victim’s lungs, thus less oxygenated blood.

Check whether the airway is open and put the victim’s head in a tilt position using the method head tilt/chin lift.

Use a pistol grip to position and hold the jaw with one hand and use the other to push back the forehead.

Take a glance after every breath to check whether there are rise and fall in the chest cavity, indicating breathing. If it fails, adjust the victims’ head while being careful not to twist their neck.

10 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation facts And Why You Should Get CPR training

  1. Often, patients that are suffering from chronic illnesses fail to revive after going into cardiac arrest.
  • If they are lucky to live, they suffer from brain damage to which they require the assistance of a lifesaving machine to keep them alive.
  • Sometimes the patient may have signed an order of no resuscitation in case of such an attack. In such a scenario, it is advisable to obey the victims’ wishes and stop reviving him/her since it may turn to a legal issue.
  • In America alone, sudden cardiac arrest results in the death of more than 900 adults. Out of 550000 people who have coronary heart disease, 335000 die each year due to complications from the condition or lack of proper treatment/earlier detection and treatment.
  • According to CPR statistics by the American Heart Association, 95% of people who experience sudden cardiac arrest die before arriving at a health facility. Among all these victims, we only have 6% surviving.
  • However, it is possible to increase the CPR survival rates of patients by receiving CPR trained and guidance on handling people with SCA.
  • More than 80% of the cases of cardiac arrest happen at home or in a private setting. Gaining training and information on the general procedures on how to carry out CPR will help increase the chances of survival for the victim, and save lives.
  • CPR was invented in 1960 and is based on methods like mouth-to-mouth respiration and compression of the chest.
  • CPR triggers the flow of oxygenated blood to critical organs when applied to a victim of cardiac arrest.
  1. You can save a life by carrying out CPR until medical personnel reaches the scene for defibrillation or any other advanced treatments related to this condition.

Cardiac arrest cases are usually medical emergencies and can happen anytime and in any setting.

Often, individuals who experience cardiac arrests usually appear healthy therefore making these attacks unpredictable.

Moreover, there is a difference in cardiac arrests and heart attacks. For instance, SCA is not caused by a heart condition.


Severe injuries and electrical impulses can cause it. It is, therefore essential to get the training needed to save a life. You might find yourself on the frontline of help for a cardiac arrest victim in the future.

CPR certification is a combination of problem solving techniques and procedures used in case of medical emergencies. Such life-threatening medical emergency includes cardiac arrests, stroke and other forms of emergences such as drowning.

As we have referred it as a combination of problem solving techniques, these trainings include First Aid, Automated External Defibrillator (AED) and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).

They impart knowledge and skills to help them handle emergencies and act appropriately without endangering lives.

There many benefits of having taking a CPR certification course. Some of them include;

1. You save lives:  Heart conditions are becoming very popular among individuals. Equipping yourself with CPR training can, therefore, mean saving lots of lives. A CDC research that showed that about 350,000 cases of heart related complications happened out of hospital. It also revealed that around 88% of such cases do not survive. If people around them are trained on CPR, significant number can have a chance to live longer.

2. You get empowered:  When one is CPR-certified, they one empowered because they required can offer assistances using the skills they’ve acquired. It can also give them confidence while performing the procedure during emergencies.

3. Understand different CPR techniques: When one is certified in CPR, it means they have taken CPR classes. During training, they learn the differences between adult, baby and child CPR which is important in rescuing people.

4. Build your CV: These days’ employer prefers staffs with CPR training than those without. If CPR training is a must-have in your job application, you stand a higher chance of winning the position.

Earning a CPR certification or recertification is now a hassle-free process you can do online (or over the internet) from the comfort of your home. As long as you have a mobile gadget or PC (personal computer) and access to the internet.

The American Academy of CPR and First Aid Inc., for instance, offers an online CPR certification course that you can accomplish in less than an hour. This federally-accepted platform offers reasonably-priced recourses to people looking for CPR knowledge and skills.

Affordable is not the limit for The American Academy of CPR and First Aid Inc., you can now take a free course, and earn a CPR certificate!

All you have to do is visit their official CPR website, view summarized course content and take an examination. All these can occur in less than an hour and so one must not wait longer to get an online CPR certificate or renew what they already have.

Conclusion

It is vital to get acquainted with basic first aid skills, more so lifesaving tactics like CPR and First Aid.

Online Cardiopulmonary resuscitation classes are available for anyone looking to undergo lifesaving CPR training.

They are an excellent alternative for busy people who can’t spare some time to go to a physical class. Take your practice today and save a life!