A recent study estimates that the incidences of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are more pronounced in the black men population. This is compared to other diseases like esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) among the white non-Hispanic. The researchers thus arrived at the conclusion that screening may be a necessity.

Anoop Prabhu, MD said that after generalizing the study, the finding is that high-risk population – for that matter the African-American – had a deeper history when it comes to tobacco and alcohol. He is from the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the division of gastroenterology at University of Michigan Medical School.

In order to make an estimate of the race- sex- and exposure-specific incidence of ESCC in relation to that of EAC in white men, Prabhu and his colleagues jointly developed the Markov computer model. They analyzed the National Health Interview Survey to come up with ratios of alcohol as well as tobacco for ESCC. They also obtained the SEER data that they used to have a picture of the present day ESCC situation in the United States.

“Drinkers” are defined by NHIS as individuals who consumed over twelve alcoholic drinks throughout their lifetime. On the other hand, NHIS defines “smokers” to be people who have smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their entire lifetime.

Black men record highest ESCC incidences

According to the SEER data, Black men indicated the highest ESCC incidences compared to the Asian, Hispanic and white non-Hispanic men. The black men recorded an ESCC incidence of 34.6 new cases for every 100,000 patients of 75 to 79 years old.

Black women also featured high compared to women from the other races. The Black women’s rate was 10.9 new cases for every 100,000 patients of 75 to 79 years old.

Black men and white non-Hispanic men contrasted

In the case of the black men, their estimated occurrences of ESCC for those who have ever drank alcohol or smoked tobacco was close to the risk of EAC in the white non-Hispanic men. This was true for those aged 50 to 60 years. For instance, in black male smokers and drinkers, ESCC incidence was 30 new cases per 100,000 in patients aged 60 years, compared with 40 new cases of EAC per 100,000 in white men with weekly GERD. This can be contrasted with the white non-Hispanic men where there are 40 new occurrences for every 100,000 individuals.

The white non-Hispanic women were equally featured, with their weekly GERD being 6.2 new cases for every 100,000. The women generally recorded a low estimate in terms of ESCC for women who drank and smoked across all the races and ages.

Prabhu said that as much as there are no screening recommendations for ESCC, their study indicated the ESCC cases in the high-risk population was approaching that of a population where screening is recommended frequently.