Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Though we are aware of some common risk factors, anyone can need CPR at any time regardless of their health, age or sex.

A bystander should initiate the Cardiopulmonary resuscitation process on any person who’s still alive but is:

  1. Not responsive or unresponsive to touch, sounds
  2. Unconscious
  3. Not breathing or breathing abnormally—some sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) cases begin with gasping. In this cases resuscitation should begin ASAP.

Now these can be triggered by many reasons including;

  • Sudden cardiac arrest
  • Drowning
  • Heart attack
  • Electrocution
  • Choking or suffocation
  • Poisoning
  • Overdosing on drugs
  • Excessive Inhalation of smoke

All these things happen without a warning. The word “sudden” prefixes cardiac arrest partly because the condition occurs unexpectedly. If there were a visible or comprehensible warning sign for it, then we’d be talking prevention.

This uncertainty and spontaneous twist of events can be confusing, especially if you don’t know where to start. That explains the critical role of CPR training in our lives.

There are also situations when CPR should stop!  Training in CPR can help you understand when to stop.

Here are the cases when you should avoid CPR.

  1. If the victim starts showing signs of consciousness.

Of course, stop CPR when as soon as the victim recovers from their unconsciousness or responsiveness.  Do not continue with chest compressions after the victim is conscious.

  1. If the bystander’s life is in danger.

At all cost, your life is the first priority in case of an emergency. If one feels it is no longer safe to perform the procedure, they should stop and try to move the victim to safer location.

  1. If the person has a DNR wearable or tattoo.

Do not Resuscitate is an optional order (the patient decides if they want it) that a doctor writes for a patient to stop, prevent, or burr anyone from initiating CPR on the patient.

Some patients wear a DNR necklace or have a tattoo on their chest to inform bystanders that they do not wish to be resuscitated.

  1. When the victim has passed away.

When a patient has died, there is no need to perform a CPR procedure. Always check the victim’s pulse from time to time while continuing CPR.

Adults, Children and Infants Have Different Resuscitation Needs

On CPR, it is important to learn that the procedure varies among grown-ups, children and infants.

 The CPR techniques used in adults varies slightly with those used in infants. These differences are caused by two major reasons including;

  • Differences in physiology. For instance, an infant has a thinner airway and weaker bones which may not support vigorous chest compressions.
  • The risks or dangers vary from one group to the next. For instance, children are at a higher danger of choking than sudden cardiac arrest.

Furthermore, infants and kids are a tricky bunch to deal with because you must go the extra mile to assess the situation accurately and intervene immediately.

The fact that CPR needs vary from group to group further emphasizes the critical role of CPR training in our lives.

Because the risks are inevitable, and anyone could be in danger at any time, the best you can do is to familiarize with CPR techniques across all age-groups.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique. CPR is given when an individual has agonal respiration or is not responsive. Time is a vital determinant of the success of CPR.

CPR first aid consists of the application of rescue breathing as well as chest compressions. Compressions of the chest should start as soon as possible. If the bystander or rescuer is skilled and confident, then mouth to mouth resuscitation should follow.

The technique assists in reestablishing the unconstrained flow of blood. CPR improves the chances of survival when done on time, and in the right way. The process is important in saving lives because it helps avert tissue damage due to a lack of oxygen.

The use of defibrillation is another optional CPR process that should be carried out during a sudden cardiac arrest. It is process of applying an electric current to restore the normal rhythm of the sino-atrial node often done by an AED or automated defibrillator.

So how does this procedure differ across this three groups? First, the “adult, child, infant” definition can be a little confusing.

So what are the age or criteria to use in classifying the three groups?

  1. Adults or grownups: people with any signs of puberty (like facial hair, mammary glands etc.) should be treated as an adult.
  2. Child CPR: Anyone 1-8 years old is considered a child.
  3.  Infants or babies or newborns: Anyone less than a year should be considered an infant.

According to the CPR Participants Book (pg. 95) the rule of thumb is to “use pediatric AED pads for infants and children up to 8 years old or weighing less than 55 pounds.” That is to say anyone above 55 pounds should receive adult CPR.

So how does the cardiopulmonary Resuscitation process differ in adults, children and babies?

  1. Resuscitation for Adult/Grownups (8yrs and above).

While grownups may be at the danger of choking, congested airways, near-drowning cases, and lots of other problems, cardiac arrest is the leading cause of resuscitation in adults.

So what does the adult CPR procedure entail?

Dial 911.

The first step should be to call an emergency response team or have someone else do that as you start. This should happen immediately because;

  1. CPR is only meant toreinstate the normal flow of blood and improve the chances of survival. So, you will need experts after that.
  2. Time is of the essence when it comes to issuing CPR. The timely arrival of experts could be a life-saver.
  3. You may have CPR skills but a medical expert can do better (they may have access to equipment like AED and the Lucas Machine which can increase survival chances) so it is important to seek their assistance.

NB: Dial 911 firstunless you have reason to believe a congested airways is the major cause of the CPR; in which case you should dial 911 after issuing CPR for 60 seconds.

Do a pulse-check. A passerby can easily find a pulse on a grownupby placing a finger or two on the carotid artery, usually on the neck, right beneath the jaw.

Issue mouth to mouth. The AHA recommendscompression-only, more so for individuals who aren’t skilled and experienced in resuscitation. However, if you use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on a grownup, incline the individual’s head backward and clear the airway before issuing rescue-breaths.

Initiate chest compressions. In a grownup, chest compressions involve the use of two hands in the mid-section of the chest and applying pressure using your palms.  Go 2 inches deep when doing chest compressions in grownups.

  • CPR for Children (ages 1-8).

Before conducting CPR on a child, or anyone 1-8 years, it is important to understand that they have thinner airway than grownups; because they have a larger tongue than their mouths.

These traits and the tendency to put items on their mouths explain why a congested airway is the most common reason a child may need CPR.

So what is the difference in the CPR procedure for a victim1 to 8 years old?

Begin CPR before dialing 911. For children, experts recommend that you begin initiating CPR straightaway—before making a call— if you happen be to be the only bystander in the scene.

The “need for speed” in child CPR is to rescue young people who are generally less resilient than grownups, and they are more likely to survive if the get CPR straightaway—about a 70 percent chance of surviving. Furthermore, a thinner airway leads to a congested air-passage in children so it’s important to starting resuscitation immediately.

If a bystander is on their own, they should dial 911 immediately after issuing cardiopulmonary resuscitation—five chest-compressions and breath-cycles lasting about 120 seconds.  

A second bystander can dial 911 straightaway as the other begins CPR.

Issue mouth to mouth. The airway in children is thinner than in adults. Bystanders need to handle children with more care when slanting the head backward to open the airway—and give life-breaths. Over-tilting the head may further congest the airway—instead of opening it. Also, avoid breathing heavily; be gentler than you would when issuing rescue breaths to a grownup.

Begin chest compressions. Use one or two hands to push the chest—based on the child’s size.  Adults have a larger chest surface area than children, so whether to use one or two palms is a decision entrusted to the soundness of a bystander. Compressions must be 11/2 inches deep— and not 2 inches as in adults. Lastly, the rate of compression and breath should be very similar for a child and a grownup—30 compressions to 2 breaths.  

The use of an AED in children. An AED Kit may or may not be available on the scene at the time when it is needed the most. If you can access an AED nearby, initiate its use after 120 seconds of cardiopulmonary resuscitation— also use the pediatric pads, if you have an AED with those.

  • CPR for Infant or Baby CPR (less than a year).

If you thought CPR for children was a careful procedure then you should hear about infant CPR. Victims less than a year old are fragile.

Confirm consciousness. In grownups or adults, you are asked to tap or shake a victim as a way to find out if they’re conscious. In newborns, it is NOT okay to shake. Instead, bystanders are advised to stroke an infant gently, or tap the feet, and observe reactions.

Conduct CPR before dialing 911. Like in children, babies or infants aremore likely to survive if cardiopulmonary resuscitation starts straightaway. 911 should be dialed after 5 cycles of CPR or 120 seconds. A second bystander should call 911 quickly as bystander 1 performs CPR.

Do a pulse-check. Again this is one of the major differences between CPR in newborns and resuscitation in adults and children.

This time you will be reaching for the inside part of the upper arm or the brachial artery and not the neck or (carotid artery).

Issue mouth to mouth. Newborns require you to be more careful than when dealing with children or adults. Breaths must be very light to avoid clogging the air passage  

Over-slanting the head backward can block an already slim airway. Doctors advise that for newborns, the best posture is to slant the head backward as the newborn was smelling or sniffing air.

Again instead of drawing air and force from your lungs. Blow the air in your cheeks into the newborn’s airway. And since newborns have a smaller face, you can blow air into the nose andmouth.

Light compressions. The chest surface area to that in infants is way small compared to that in children and grownups. For infants, you’ll only need two fingers (your middle- and index-finger). Place your fingers in the mid-section of the newborn’s chest to administer compressions. 

When pushing a newborn’s chest, go 1 or 11/2 inches deep. The ratio remains 30 compressions to 2 rescue-breaths.

In a nutshell, a child is more likely to survive after instant cardiopulmonary resuscitation than adult. This is mainly because, they have a weaker system compared to grownups— and they may need more resuscitation because of a congested airway instead of SCA.

Because timing is key, learning the essentials of CPR in children is important is increasing the chances of rescuing more kids.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Certification

CPR certification is a combination of problem solving techniques and procedures that are used in case of medical emergencies. Such life-threatening medical emergency includes cardiac arrests, stroke and other forms of emergences such as drowning.

As we have referred to it as a combination of problem solving techniques, these topics include First Aid, Automated External Defibrillation (AED) and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).

They impart knowledge and skills to individuals. They also train on how to handle emergencies and act appropriately without endangering lives.

There many benefits of having taking a CPR certification course. Some of them include;

  1. It saves lives.

Heart conditions are becoming very popular among individuals. Equipping yourself with CPR training can, therefore, mean saving lots of lives. A CDC research that showed that about 350,000 cases of heart related complications happened out of hospital.

It also revealed that around 88% of such cases do not survive. If people around them are trained on CPR, significant number can have a chance to live longer.

  • CPR training is empowering.

When one gets a CPR certification, one feels empowered when he or she is required to offer assistance using the skills they’ve acquired. It can also give them confidence while performing the procedure during emergencies.

  • CPR Knowledge.

When one has CPR certification, it means he or she has taken CPR classes. During training, they learn the differences between adult, baby and child CPR which is important in rescuing people.

  • Build your CV.

These days’ employer prefers staffs with CPR training than those without. If CPR training is a must-have in your job application, you stand a higher chance of winning the position.

Out to Save Lives: Enjoy Free-of-Charge CPR Training & Certification

Earning a CPR certification or recertification is now a hassle-free process you can do online (or over the internet) from the comfort of your home. As long as you have a mobile gadget or PC (personal computer) and access to the internet.

The American Academy of CPR and First Aid Inc., for instance, offers an online CPR certification course that you can accomplish in less than an hour. This federally-accepted platform offers reasonably-priced recourses to people looking for CPR knowledge and skills.

Affordable is not the limit for The American Academy of CPR and First Aid Inc., you can now take a free course, and earn a CPR certificate!

All you have to do is visit their official CPR website, view summarized course content and take an examination. All these can occur in less than an hour and so one must not wait longer to get an online CPR certificate or renew what they already have.

All participants who pass will get an online CPR wallet card and printable card which they can use right away. With the printable card, you can prove that you have undertaken a cardiopulmonary resuscitation course as your wallet card processes.

Those who want to learn more basic life support skills and save more lives or improve their CVs can take combined courses and earn a good discounts.

But despite the distance, online training is successful and a convenient way to conduct training. Practice is also an important aspect. Physical classes may also help impart more skill.

All trainings should be done by the use of a manikin. It also helps to note that a healthy person (breathing normally) should not be used as a training instrument for CPR.

Online training can be done anywhere as long as you have devices that can gain access to the internet.

Anyone Can Train and Do Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation!

People tend to believe that one must be a medical practitioner to perform CPR.

To many individuals in the society, CPR is only be effective if a done by (or in the presence of a medical practitioner. These perceptions can lead to loss of life in cases where one can be rescued if a bystander attempts to administer CPR.

Life-saving strategies can be taught by a simple CPR certification course. Its starts with the passion to save lives in a death situation, and then comes the push to know more through CPR training. 

No papers, pass marks, grades or any other selection criteria here, anyone is qualified to learn CPR. All you need is the willingness to learn and some dedication.

Some of the emergency response service providers recommend just a simple chest compression when waiting for CPR to be done. With that, they argue that people get the sense of training on CPR.

Debunking this misconception will reduce deaths rates caused by cardiac arrest and other scenarios significantly.

The American Heart Association (AHA) conducted a study which revealed that 75 percent of all the cardiac arrest cases recorded do not survive due to lack of emergency response. This is due to the lack of willingness to train on CPR skills and techniques.

That means if people can show more willingness and move to acquire knowledge on issuing CPR, then more lives can be saved. The idea that CPR is not worth knowing has claimed lots of lives in cases where a passersby can save a life.

Final Words

Adult, Baby and Child CPR better practiced in a complete course. Without CPR training, it can be difficult to respond swiftly because you may know what to do— but in shady details.

A child is more likely to survive after instant cardiopulmonary resuscitation than adult. This is mainly because, they have a weaker system compared to grownups— and they may need more resuscitation because of a congested airway instead of SCA.

An engaging CPR course can give a better sense of what an emergency situation would look like and prepare you to act better.

Understanding the underlying discrepancies between adult, child and infant CPR can mean saving a life.

While these blog posts are an excellent way to start, a CPR training course can help iron you CPR skills and get you ready for the real emergency.

Because timing is key in baby and child CPR, learning the essentials of resuscitation in children is important is increasing the chances of rescuing more kids.